What motivates suicide bombers (from the English. ” Suicide bombers “)?
Suicide bombings have become a weapon of terrorist groups, due to their deadly effectiveness and ability to cause fear and confusion. Daily reports of suicide bombers rarely explain the motivations of attackers. Between 1981 and 2006, 1,200 suicide attacks accounted for 4% of all terrorist attacks in the world. They killed 14,599 people, or 32% of all terrorism-related deaths. The question is why?
Finally, we have specific data to help us address this issue. The most comprehensive database on suicide terrorism in the world is located at Flinders University (Australia). It contains information on the suicide attacks in Iraq, Palestine, Israel, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Sri Lanka , which together account for 90% of all suicide attacks from 1981 to 2006. The analysis of the information contained in it provides interesting clues: it is politics rather than religious fanaticism. which motivates bombers .
Evidence from the database largely discredits the common belief that religion is a major cause of suicide bombers . It turns out that while religion can play a significant role in recruiting and motivating potential assassins, it is not their driving force. The driving force is a mix of motivations including politics, humiliation, revenge, retaliation and altruism.
On October 4, 2003, Hanadi Jaradat, a 29-year-old Palestinian lawyer, detonated her suicide belt at a restaurant, killing 20 people and injuring many more. According to her family, her suicide was revenge for the killing of her brother and her fiancé by Israeli security forces and for all the crimes committed by Israel in the West Bank (West Bank), ie killing Palestinians and expropriating their land. The main motive for the suicide attacks in Israel is revenge for the acts committed by Israel.
In September 2007, US forces carried out a raid on an Iraqi insurgency camp in the desert city of Singar near the Syrian border. They discovered documents of more than 700 foreign fighters who came to support Iraq. 52 of them came from a small Libyan town of Darnah. The reason so many young men went on a suicide mission to Iraq was not a global ideology of jihad (Jihad), but a mixture of despair, pride, anger, helplessness, a local tradition of resistance and religious zeal . A similar combination of factors motivated young Pashtuns to volunteer suicide missions in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Typically, most suicide bombers are mentally normal and are deeply integrated into social networks and emotionally connected to their national community. Randomly attached descriptions as “crazy” not only indicate someone’s inability to understand deeper reasons, but also do not bring us closer to understanding the cause of the phenomenon of suicide bombers. Rather, they prevent us from discovering their true nature, purpose, and cause.
Understanding the logic of a terrorist organization is more important than individual motivation in explaining suicide attacks. Suicide attacks have a high symbolic value because the willingness to die signals a high commitment from the perpetrators. It serves as a symbol of a fair struggle, encourages public support, creates financial support for the organization, and helps recruit new adepts to future suicide attacks.
People have a strong aversion to what they perceive as injustice, with the dark side manifesting as revenge. One of the consequences of the desire for revenge is an individual’s willingness to endure suffering in fulfilling revenge. Thinking about revenge can achieve a number of goals, including repairing perceived personal harm, restoring the avenger’s self-esteem, and preventing future injustice.
Revenge is also a response to the continuing suffering of the victim. At the heart of the whole process are perceptions of personal harm, injustice and injustice, anger, resentment and hatred associated with such perceptions.
Men attach more value to revenge than women; young men are more prepared to act in a vengeful way than older ones. No wonder most suicide bombers are young men.
Coded religious and nationalist attitudes to accept death, resulting from long-term collective suffering, humiliation and helplessness , allow political organizations to offer suicide bombings as a basis for human feelings of despair, deprivation, hostility and injustice .
For an individual who is carrying out a suicide mission, it is not just about killing and death, but it has a broader meaning – personal and communal. These include gaining social recognition and political success, liberating the homeland, achieving personal salvation or honor, achieving community survival through martyrdom, refusing conquest, desire for revenge for personal or collective humiliation, announcing religious or nationalist beliefs, expressing guilt, shame, escaping unbearable daily degradations of life such as occupation, boredom, anxiety and defiance.
The causes of suicide attacks do not lie in individual psychology but in broader social conditions. Understanding and knowledge of these conditions is necessary to create protective mechanisms designed to protect the public.